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Chilling Discovery
<p>Nancy Bertler</p>

Nancy Bertler

Ice cores packed and ready for transport back to Scott Base, where they were stored in readiness for the ship journey back to New Zealand for analysis.

The Snow-Readers

Ice contains a “memory” within its compressed crystals that we can now recover and turn into climate records. From the savage Antarctic comes a team of ice-core drillers — and arriving in New Zealand imminently is their ice, possibly the strongest evidence yet of the vulnerability of great ice sheets to global warming.


Christmas came early to a remote corner of Antarctica last year. After two summers of drilling, the 12-member crew of the Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution Project (RICE) finally made it through nearly 800 metres of solid ice, to bedrock, on December 20, 2012.

In doing so they had, figuratively speaking, travelled back in time more than 100,000 years, to the Earth’s last interglacial period, when the Earth’s ice caps receded and global sea levels rose.

The nine-nation team had spent three months in this remote location on the Ross Ice Shelf — a white expanse roughly the size of France — sleeping in tents, working laboriously in layers of extreme-cold-weather clothing, enduring the regular storms that make even an Antarctic summer a savage environment.

If they toasted their breakthrough, however, it was not without the knowledge that their findings could be cause for anything but celebration.

Because contained within the solid ice cores — which they had painstakingly extracted with the drill rig — lies information that could support a hypothesis that large parts of the frozen continent are more delicate, more dynamic and changing more rapidly than previously thought.

The pace and scale of Antarctic melting — and therefore the kind of rise in sea levels we all fear — could happen much faster than previously imagined.

The ice cores are right now locked within two super-refrigerated containers onboard the last ship out of McMurdo Sound before the Antarctic winter closes in, and due to arrive in New Zealand in early March.

It is all precious cargo, but there is one sample that is of particular interest. When the very last ice core was drawn up from a depth of 763 metres, it showed imprints of the sediment on which it had been resting. The team sent the drill down one more time and managed to draw up a little of this sediment — which has the consistency of frozen mud.

The RICE team believes there is a strong probability it will turn out to be marine sediment, most likely from the interglacial period before the last ice age, 105,000 to 130,000 years ago, when temperatures were only a little higher than they are today.

If confirmed, it would mean Roosevelt Island was under water during that interglacial phase. This in turn would mean the Ross Ice Shelf was much smaller than it is today, or had in fact disappeared altogether. The huge West Antarctic ice sheet behind it would have been significantly smaller too.

“Of course,” says ice-core climatologist and RICE project leader Nancy Bertler, “that would mean we are far more susceptible to change than we might think.”

In other words, the pace and scale of Antarctic melting — and therefore the kind of rise in sea levels we all fear — could happen much faster than previously imagined.

<p>Tom Beer</p>

Tom Beer

RICE project leader Nancy Bertler examining an ice core at the Roosevelt Island site.

COASTAL ICE CORE RESEARCH IS RELATIVELY NEW. Previously, scientists believed the great Antarctic interior, where the ice sheet can reach depths of 4 km, would yield the most useful results.

But in the coastal regions, where the sheet is thinner and the records correspondingly shorter, the cores have provided a complementary picture to those from the interior. “Being at the coast is right at the interface between the ocean and the atmosphere and the ice sheet. This is really where the change is most visible.”

The Roosevelt Island site, then, provides a measure of climatic conditions from the last interglacial period to the present. Within the past 30,000 years of that span, from the end of the last ice age to now, the Earth has experienced a temperature increase of about six degrees. That was enough to melt ice sheets in the northern hemisphere and cause the Ross Ice Shelf to contract up to a thousand kilometres southward to its present perimeter.

As a consequence of this melting, sea levels rose and the big West and East Antarctic ice sheets thinned a little. Throughout this period, Roosevelt Island has been quietly recording a year-by-year snapshot of global warming.

The data extracted from the ice cores will allow the historical CO2 record to be reconstructed, atmospheric and sea-surface temperatures to be calculated, and the sea-ice extent to be estimated. “It allows us now to establish how quickly the Ross Ice Shelf can react to warming and how quickly it retreats because of that warming, both in the ocean and in the atmosphere,” says Bertler.

Roosevelt Island sits at one edge of the Ross Ice Shelf. At the other edge lies Ross Island, home to New Zealand’s Scott Base, which serves as the transport and provisioning hub for the RICE expedition. The $NZ7 million project is a massive logistical operation, involving the transport of some 200 tonnes of cargo 600 kilometres across the ice to the drill site.

<p>Nancy Bertler</p>

Nancy Bertler

Flags of the nine RICE member nations fly at the drill site on Roosevelt Island.

At the heart of the site lies a 30-metre-long trench, 10 metres at its deepest point, dug out with chainsaws and shovels. A small complex of caves off to the side serves as storage for the ice cores once they have been hauled up.

Inside the trench and beneath a sheltering tent sits the rig itself, purpose-built for the conditions and with a new hydraulic system designed to break off each ice core sample as cleanly and gently as possible.

According to Bertler, there was some initial skepticism from veteran ice-core drillers about the hydraulic innovation, but it proved ideal for coping with the peculiarities of Antarctic ice.

That is, when under intense pressure beyond a depth of a few hundred metres, Antarctic ice becomes what is known as “brittle ice”. The tiny bubbles of prehistoric atmosphere within — vital for analysing the climatic conditions when they were first formed — react dramatically to even the slightest warming.

Place a sample in your hand, for instance, and it may explode with a radius of several metres. “Imagine when you send an electro-mechanical drill down, then you pull with almost a tonnne of weight on it,” explains Bertler. “Very often this brittle ice comes up in bags rather than cores.”

The ice at Roosevelt Island may be tricky to extract, but it offers a clear window into our planet’s weather history. The island — to the naked eye nothing more than a large rise in the white expanse — is one of the “pinning points” of the Ross Ice Shelf (the other being Ross Island). That is, it anchors the mass of sea ice within the Ross Embayment.

The ice mass is so heavy it depresses the underlying rock by up to a kilometre.

The regular storm tracks that circle Antarctica inevitably penetrate the Ross Sea and the ice shelf, which means Roosevelt Island is a veritable databank of snow precipitation. “And this is our business,” Bertler says. “We read snow. We turn this into climate records.”

THE RICE PROJECT WAS IN PART DESIGNED TO SOLVE A MYSTERY left by a previous New Zealand-led drilling project, known as Andrill. Andrill involved the exploration of Antarctic marine sediment from the mid-Pliocene period, about three to five million years ago, and it showed that at some point during that epoch the entire Ross Ice Shelf had disintegrated.

The mid-Pliocene is important because we have to go that far back to find atmospheric CO2 concentrations equivalent to those of today. At about 400 parts per million (ppm) they were slightly higher than our 397 ppm, and the temperatures were slightly warmer than we’re experiencing now. But human activity is increasing current CO2 levels by about two ppm per year, with temperatures following close behind — suggesting we are rapidly approaching a known tipping point.

As Bertler points out, the collapse of the Ross Ice Shelf would have been dramatic in itself, but because the shelf is made of sea ice it already displaces its own mass and does not affect sea levels. However, what Andrill also showed was that the whole West Antarctic ice sheet had collapsed.

While the West Antarctic ice sheet is smaller than the East Antarctic sheet, it still contains more than two million cubic kilometres of frozen fresh water. The ice mass is so heavy it depresses the underlying rock by up to a kilometre.

When it previously collapsed — in conditions which also caused the northern hemisphere ice sheets to melt, and the margins of the East Antarctic sheet to collapse — global sea levels rose about 20 metres. “That’s very significant, obviously,” says Bertler with admirable understatement.

<p>Nancy Bertler</p>

Nancy Bertler

An ice core still encased in the drill jacket after its extraction from deep within the ice sheet.

What Andrill couldn’t show, due to the much lower resolution of sedimentary records, but what RICE is expected to reveal, is how quickly the sea ice retreated or the ice sheet collapsed. It might have taken anywhere between 50 and 500 years — the blink of an eye in geological terms.

Such a broad margin of error poses huge problems for policy makers, who need more accurate predictions when planning for the potentially alarming consequences of multi-metre rises in sea level. “This is where Roosevelt Island comes in,” says Bertler.

As she puts it, ice contains a “memory” within its compressed crystals that we can now recover and interpret, to determine not just what happened in the past, but what will happen in the future.

There are many variables influencing these major climate shifts, from the Earth’s elliptical orbit around the sun to the feedback loops created by ocean warming or ice-sheet accumulation.

And we are only now beginning to understand the true relationship between atmospheric CO2 levels and rising temperatures. As the New York Times recently reported, more sophisticated ice core analysis suggests there is a much closer link than previously argued by some climate change sceptics.

By reconstructing a past that is comparable to our present, Bertler explains, we can “train” our computer climate models to accurately “predict the past”, which in turn will give us more confidence in their ability to forecast future climate conditions.

This is the huge advantage ice cores have over Andrill’s sedimentary record. “We can read the cores like a seasonal diary. So we can tell you exactly what a summer 29,000 years ago looked like in this area.”

“You see wonderful oscillations, you see warmer and colder temperatures from summers and winters ...”

The cores’ records aren’t quite as obvious to the eye as the rings of a tree, but are as clear as day to scientists with the right measuring equipment. Bertler: “You see wonderful oscillations, you see warmer and colder temperatures from summers and winters, you see marine air masses dominating during the summer, the sea ice extent that has its maximum sometime in August then reduces to its minimum in January or February. We can see those things for each year, every year, in the ice-core record.”

The RICE research, like the other ice-core projects around Antarctica, exists in the context of a rapidly expanding field of knowledge about the West Antarctic ice sheet’s recent, disconcerting behaviour. Satellite imagery now shows the ice sheet has a negative “mass balance”; that is, the rate of melt is outstripping the rate of snow precipitation, and therefore West Antarctica is losing mass very quickly.

At the inaccessible and inhospitable Amundsen Sea Embayment, the massive Pine Island Glacier, which drains about 10 per cent of West Antarctica’s ice sheet directly into the sea, has been moving faster and thinning out over the past decade, as has the nearby Thwaites Glacier.

Because much of the ice sheet is grounded on rock thousands of metres below sea level, the danger is that sea water will eventually pour in over the lip of the continent and effectively float the ice above it.

“At the moment,” says Bertler, the loss of mass balance “is all due to melt ice being transported into the ocean. But if the water reaches underneath, as soon as you lift that mass, you increase the sea level by the equivalent of that mass.” Such a lifting of the entire West Antarctic sheet “could cause a five- to seven-metre rise in sea levels, but just the Pine Island area [could] raise levels by one to two metres”.

<p>Nancy Bertler</p>

Nancy Bertler

The drilling rig housed in its trench and tent at Roosevelt Island.

At the same time the Southern Ocean is absorbing more CO2, and warming faster and to a greater depth than previously imagined. Instead of only the first hundred or so metres of water being affected, temperatures have risen at depths of up to 3,000 metres. The increase might be very small (0.2 degrees Celsius in a decade), but the amount of energy required to warm such a vast body of water is huge. The fact that the ocean is absorbing so much of the warming also explains why atmospheric temperatures haven’t risen as steeply as might have been expected.

“In the short term that is really great,” Bertler suggests, “because it buys us a little time. But in the long term it is really bad. The ocean has a very long memory, and the warmth we are currently putting into the ocean will be with us for a very long time. So we are committed to that for many generations to come.”

Pine Island is one indicator of the possible consequences of this warming. Back at Roosevelt Island, the same rules apply for the Ross Ice Shelf. “If you put warm water under an ice shelf, ice shelves don’t like that. They warm rather quickly and melt quickly from underneath. You can’t see that until it collapses.”

In May this year representatives from all the RICE member nations will arrive at the New Zealand Ice Core Research Facility in Wellington to begin analysing the ice cores from Roosevelt Island. Working around the clock and using an ultra-pure nickel disk to melt each sample, they will begin with the most recent cores and work back (or down) towards the past. Hundreds of thousands of measurements will be taken to reveal the history of this surprisingly sensitive and dynamic part of the planet.

But that crucial sample of frozen mud from the surface of the sub-glacial rock will be analysed much more quickly, hopefully by mid-March. If, as the researchers have hypothesised, it turns out to be marine sediment, it will be yet more evidence of the potentially alarming implications of global warming.

And if not?

“Scientifically I would not be so excited,” Bertler concludes. “But personally I would be really pleased.”

16 comments on this story
by Chris G

Something doesn't quite add up with my understanding of the consequences of the ice-sheet mass being lifted by water flowing underneath it. It is quite possible that this is an interpretation problem on my behalf, so I'll be happy for someone to correct me if I've got this wrong.

The article quotes Bertler as saying "... as soon as you lift that mass, you increase the sea level by the equivalent of that mass.” The article goes on to say that this would result in a sea rise of 5 to 7 metres. However, the ice is grounded to bedrock below sea level. If that connection to the bedrock was severed, and sea water entered the gap between the ice and the bedrock, the displacement of the ice in the ocean would be less, not more. Put another way, if an object that is currently on the ground is "lifted" by water flowing underneath it, the result of the water filling the void between the object and the surface that it is sitting on is for the surrounding water level to go down. If the mass of ice above sea level is so great that the displacement of sea water is insufficient for the ice to be floated, then it can't be "lifted" off the bedrock. Now, from the point that the ice sheet does float, there will not be any additional changes in the sea level as melting sea ice causes no changes in sea level.

As I said above, I may be misinterpreting this, or may not be aware of some particulars about the location, but I would be happy for someone to re-explain that particular point that the article is trying to make.

March 6, 2013 @ 12:37am
by Daniel Voronoff

What an excellent article, thank you. I look forward to hearing about the research results.

March 6, 2013 @ 11:32am
by Bruno D

To Chris G: it is the absence of water that increases sea levels. Water should flow to fill in the gap. That implies a rate of melting - this water shall not become ice again, it is trapped. The area (Pine Islands Glacier) "drains about 10 per cent of West Antarctica’s ice sheet directly into the sea". "Satellite imagery now shows the ice sheet has a negative “mass balance”; that is, the rate of melt is outstripping the rate of snow precipitation, and therefore West Antarctica is losing mass very quickly.". "“At the moment,” says Bertler, the loss of mass balance “is all due to melt ice being transported into the ocean." - draining through Pine Island Glacier to the ocean "the sea ice extent that has its maximum sometime in August then reduces to its minimum in January or February. We can see those things for each year, every year, in the ice-core record."

If water is trapped, the impact is immense - "If you put warm water under an ice shelf, ice shelves don’t like that. They warm rather quickly and melt quickly from underneath. You can’t see that until it collapses.”".

Buoyancy also tells us: Buoyancy = weight of displaced fluid. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buoyancy)

Makes sense?

March 6, 2013 @ 5:48pm
by Norry

Ice cores have been done already and showed the wrong results obviously. So now they are going to pay some so called "experts" to get the results they want. The "Global Warming" now called "Climate Change" agenda is about money, lots and lots of money, it has nothing to do with looking after our beautiful planet. The climate has been changing since the Earth started rotating around the Sun, long before Man arrived. The sad thing is people are so dopey and therefore can be so easily manipulated into thinking BS. is truth! Just throw in some equally dopey "experts"who shout down and deride any real truth and vouilah, job done !
From New Scientist 16/5/2007 : Ice cores from Antarctica show that at the end of recent ice ages, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere usually started to rise only after temperatures had begun to climb. There is uncertainty about the timings, partly because the air trapped in the cores is younger than the ice, but it appears the lags might sometimes have been 800 years or more.

March 7, 2013 @ 4:36am
by Imagine

At last @Norry - the voice of reason,

Of course, it is so obvious. Why can't we all see that it would be so easy to coordinate a massive conspiracy involving hundreds of thousands of completely independent scientists, working for thousands of reputable scientific organisations, across dozens of unrelated scientific disciplines.

Oh, and the money - most of the scientists I know don't seek the truth to answers, they are clearly attracted to research for the obvious enormous salaries, the political influence and power, not to mention the ocean going cruisers, the parties, fast cars and women.

No. None of them would be out in the harsh Antarctic, camping on ice for months at a time, or sitting in labs laboriously conducting mind-numbing, repetitive tasks to disprove a hypothesis. True too that none of them have their scientific data, method and rigor scrutinised constantly by independent experts before they are permitted to make it public.

Naturally, of course these same obscenely wealthy and overtly influential researchers must be laughing all the way to the bank at the ease with which they have cleverly concocted such a grand conspiracy on the rest of humanity, so they may continue to manipulate the upper echelons of society with their evil agendas.

I'd suggest before you use the word "dopey", or make judgement on who is an "expert", look at where you're getting your information and question where the real motives in this game sit. Who stands to benefit the most from obfuscating or exposing the truth?

March 8, 2013 @ 7:11am
by Alfred E

I have read quite a few pleas that accelerating climate change is false but I have not read a single rebuttal.

Perhaps I read too narrowly and someone will be able to direct us to a climate scientist, who has believably refuted the proposition that climate change is accelerating, to increasingly life threatening levels, due to anthropogenic factors.

I do hope so as I’ve been feeling quite unwell recently and I’ve asked my next door neighbour about it but she keeps telling me that I should see a 'doctor' or at least that I should stop smoking but I think it’s all this unnecessary worry about climate change.

March 9, 2013 @ 10:33am
by Helen Neville

Well put Imagine.

March 9, 2013 @ 12:05pm
by Garry

Well Norry. How long have you been a member of the flat earth society ? To not believe the earth's climate is changing due to human activity is to believe the Earth is flat. The evidence is OVERWHELMING and it just keeps getting more and more convincing. Any doubt is decreasing almost day by the day. You obviously don't want to know the truth because it might mean you will have to give up your selfish, ignorant lifestyle while not caring about the future. Do you have children or grandchildren ? If you do, you obviously don't love them because if you did you would be very very concerned about their future. I teach renewable energy, climate change and sustainability and have done so over over 7 years. I look at the evidence on a daily basis. I suggest you have a look at it as well. It is so typical to dismiss it as some sort of conspiracy or "all about the money". I tell you what is "all about the money " . The mining companies who are making Trillions of dollars out of selling oil and coal that is killing out planet and its people. That is no conspiracy, that is clear fact. No wonder they spend millions to deceive the masses who don't bother to think for themselves ( just like you) and believe "she will be right mate". Get a dose of reality mate. We are in deep shit and we don't need ignorant jerks like you writing such drivel.

March 9, 2013 @ 12:13pm
by MJR

Garry, haranguing Norry is not the way to convince Norry - or anyone else - that your view holds more validity than contrary views. If I were not already a believer in the science of climate change your long fulmination would convince me that climate change believers are obnoxious radicals trying to get their way by shouting other people down.

When you teach renewable energy do you berate your students and call them 'ignorant jerks' in order to convince them of the wisdom of your teachings? I hope not.

March 9, 2013 @ 1:23pm
by Norry

@Garry, Gaz maate , lots of emotion and name calling there buddy but not a lot of substance. 7+ years whoa! and already your ego has inflated you to expert status !
Two simple ones for you Gaz and old mate above @ by Imagine:
1. Greenland,you would suppose it to be green, right? Well now the snow has melted and revealed Viking stone farmhouses and that those farms were supposedly in operation only 500 years ago!
2. The Mayan civilization moved because their water supplies dried up over a period of time. Both factual, check them out. I would put these events down to climate change without mans intervention. Just two examples of climate history, there are many more if you would like to check.
Speaking of checking, both of you did not obviously check out the New Scientist website I quoted for any more information , you both just shot from the hip ! You have accepted the guilt trip imposed upon you by "The Experts" ,that in itself is a heavy emotional burden to carry, hence all the emotion in your responses !
And while you are being distracted the real damaging environmental issues go unnoticed . This is not a man made disaster or any other type of disaster , that is pure fear mongering. If there is more carbon and more heat it means to start with that there is more food production, the glass is half full always.
So I take it you two are now not driving your cars and you are off the electricity grid ? I am off the grid ,and have been for 30 years, I am powered by the sun and hydro , I have for the past 50 years been a keen observer of weather and through years of research have deemed this fear of "global warming" now called " climate change"( because the facts showed no warming so in order to look a little more credible it was changed ) is an easy one to argue, because as I have stated, the climate has been changing daily for many many moons, no argument there. Then Just convince everyone that it is their fault and that they have to pay to fix something they had no choice in to start with. Think about it before you reply with you vitriol and do some research rather than just accepting what the lady writer on the TV tells you is real !

March 10, 2013 @ 8:44am
by Rick Swindell

I've recently discovered the Global Mail. What a pleasure to read a source of old fashioned journalism where the information is presented freely for the discriminating reader to learn from, without all the accompanying "noise" from poorly informed or vested interest commentators. Here's a factual story about climate scientists going through extreme privations in search of what the past may be able to tell us about a future we may be approaching. I had never previously thought about the danger of melting the attachment that holds "a large ice block to the bottom of the glass" and allowing it to float. And how encouraging to find that despite global financial difficulties, governments keep funding meticulous and expensive scientific studies like this that can yield no quick return for the dollar.

March 10, 2013 @ 8:50am
by Rob Jones

Norrie

Has it even occurred to you that in the past temperatures might have changed because of factors other than atmospheric carbon? The predominant cause of changing climactic conditions has been the earth's own orbit. And following warming events the atmospheric carbon concentration increased. This is not unexpected, unexplained or contrary to anthropogenic climate change theory.
In the present, however, nothing has been found that can explain the observed warming except the rise in atmospheric carbon. That is despite innumerable studies looking for alternate causes.

The theory is very simple, carbon dioxide is a heat trapping gas, we are adding more of it to our atmosphere and we are seeing our planet warm. If you want to believe in conspiracies you're welcome but think about this please. How can adding more heat trapping gas do anything other than trap more heat?

March 12, 2013 @ 8:53am
by Frank

Surely the ice record, by its very nature does not record ANY information about periods of ice melting?

March 12, 2013 @ 3:25pm
Show previous 13 comments
by Georgina

It is a great pity that the quality of the journalism on this site...similar to that of The Conversation is not matched by the quality of thought expressed by the commentators especially of the likes of Norrie. I can well sympathise with the growing panic of young people and/or their teachers like Garry. I am an old bat who with a bit of luck won't have to be around to experience the horrors to come which will have to be endured by our children, grandchildren and great grandchildren. They are all unlikely to be avoided at this late stage. I too am a huge admirer of those determined and incredibly hard-working not very well paid scientists who continue to prove what the wilfully ignorant persist in denying. Just one additional lament; how awful to be faced with the loss of virtually all the penguins as well as the polar bears, arctic foxes et al. No chance for any of hem surviving very far into this century unless miracles really do happen.

March 20, 2013 @ 9:27pm
by Colin

I too have a problem with the part about he ocean "lifting" ice sitting on top of rock below sea level

"But if the water reaches underneath, as soon as you lift that mass, you increase the sea level by the equivalent of that mass......cause a five- to seven-metre rise in sea levels, but just the Pine Island area [could] raise levels by one to two metres”.

To raise sea level, ice has to displace water by sinking into it. But obviously it can't sink if there is rock beneath it. If the ingress of sea water MELTED the ice that WAS ABOVE sea level, then that would obviously raise the sea level. Ice below sea level is essentially frozen ocean already, so melting it will not raise sea levels.

Or have I missed something (quite probably)?

March 21, 2013 @ 7:09pm
by Baysider

I am a recent subscriber to 'The global mail'. It is oh so good to read some journalism from the less politically influenced press. ( Just have a quick look at the Australian main stream press, especially as we approach 'the election', for examples of the opposite.)

But putting aside 'the inevitable emotion' on various sides of the three dimensional debate, just touched on in the 15 comments from March 2013 above, I am more interested in the results.

Don't get me wrong, there is nothing wrong with emotion, in this situation it represents the passion behind this combination of very serious, very complicated, horribly interrelated, issues facing the world as we know it, resulting from the ascendency of homo sapiens.

It is now nearly five months since the planned arrival of the tons of ice cores in NZ. It is also Four months since members of the 'poorly paid but devoted' RICE team scientists were due to start 'working around the clock'.

QUESTION : Are any updates available ? Even a potted 'progress to date' summary to the funders ie the member nations.

Thanks.

Or have the recent earthquakes in/ near Wellington caused problems or damaged the samples.

To Quote the original article By Finlay Macdonald, as indicated in two of the last paragraphs:

'In May this year representatives from all the RICE member nations will arrive at the New Zealand Ice Core Research Facility in Wellington to begin analysing the ice cores from Roosevelt Island. Working around the clock and using an ultra-pure nickel disk to melt each sample, they will begin with the most recent cores and work back (or down) towards the past. Hundreds of thousands of measurements will be taken to reveal the history of this surprisingly sensitive and dynamic part of the planet.

But that crucial sample of frozen mud from the surface of the sub-glacial rock will be analysed much more quickly, hopefully by mid-March. If, as the researchers have hypothesised, it turns out to be marine sediment, it will be yet more evidence of the potentially alarming implications of global warming.

Thanks again. Baysider

August 19, 2013 @ 12:10pm
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